The spectrum of activity of the first-generation fluoroquinolones was essentially against enterobacteriaceae 1. Norfloxacin was the first marketed fluoroquinolone, introduced in the 1980s.
Modifications in the chemical structure of norfloxacin resulted in second-generation fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin or levofloxacin.2 Veterinary drugs of this generation include enrofloxacin (Baytril®), marbofloxacin (Marbocyl®), difloxacin (Dicural®), orbifloxacin (Orbax®) and ibafloxacin (Ibaflin®).3
Second-generation fluoroquinolones are primarily active against Gram-negative species, some Gram-positive species, intracellular organisms (Rickettsia spp. and Mycobacterium spp.) and Mycoplasma spp.1 Third generation fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria relative to first and second generation compounds and good activity against anaerobes.4
Pradofloxacin (Veraflox®) is the first third generation fluoroquinolone exclusively developed for use in veterinary medicine and has shown in vitro activity against a wide range of bacterial species.5-12
Pradofloxacin range of in vitro activity